IGT® is a geophysical method classified as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-based technology. The technology is based on such fundamental physical phenomena as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Kirlian effect, informational, and radio engineering properties of terahertz waves (1012–1015 Hz).
Preliminary the spectrum of the searched mineral is recorded on the special test plates
Test plates are used as a resonator in radioactive and chemical processing of analogue satellite images of an area captured in the infrared range. The result is a direct visualization of ground boundaries of basins and deposits.
– Diagnostics of large areas – 1-2 months
– Exploration and survey of deposits – 2 months
Point-by-point resonant profiling of the area: clarification of deposit boundaries, obtaining longitudinal and cross sections. Selection of optimum drilling points, refined calculation of expected deposit reserves. Test plates are used for spectral modulation of transmitter radiation.
– Expedition to the site – 2 months
Diagnosis of areas and blocs is performed on the area up to 10,000 sq. Km and more
|Detection Area||any area of land or shelf|
|Minimum and maximum investigated area||no practical limit|
|Sensing Depth Onshore and on Shelf||0–5 km|
|Detectable minerals||water resources, oil, gas, various minerals and metals in ore deposits|
|Method Sensitivity||Two grams of substances per ton of ore body|
|Success rate of deposit detection||not less than 98 % for water resources and hydrocarbons, not less than 90 % for all other mineral types.|
|Parameters||Traditional methods||Innovative Technology|
|Executable Operations||Satellite survey
|Remote exploration and detection
Operations on site
|Duration||2 – 3 years||2 – 3 months|
|Average Number of Mining Holes||6 (Based on the data of Russian Oil and Gas Institute)||1|
|Construction of 3D models of objects||+ (anomalies)||+|
|Mineral deposits identified at the regional operation step||—||+|
|Identification of gas caps in oil horizons||—||+|
|Determination of oil mobility||—||+|
|Determination of gas pressure in gas caps||—||+|
|Determination of gas pressure in gas-bearing horizons||—||+|
|Capability to operate in any climatic and geological conditions on sites||—||+|
|Monitoring of Drilling||+||+|
|4D-seismics (time monitoring)||+||+|
|Accuracy of ground boundaries of deposits||Anomaly boundaries||Deposit boundaries:
± 50 m
|Accuracy of horizon identification||Depth of anomalies||~ 80%|
|Success rate of conducted operations||30–50%||≥ 90%|
|Duration of operations (area: 1 thousand sq. km. or greater)||2 years or longer||2–3 months|
|Specific cost of operations||$ 30.000 / km2 or higher||Lower by several times.
Reduces with expansion of the detection area
|Average number of exploratory and production wells until discovery of the deposit||6*||1|
|Drilling cost saving to discovery of onshore deposit (oil, gas, gas condensate)||—||$ 10–20 million|
|Cost saving of drilling around the deposit||—||> $ 3 million|
The technology of high-precision electric pulse sounding (HPES) is based on excitation and registration of the pulse electromagnetic field in the geologic environment by generator and receiver antennas of small sizes. It differs from standard geophysical methods by its simultaneous registering of active and passive fields resulting from direct or indirect exposure of a target (e.g. oil- or gas-bearing formation, ore bodies) to a given temporal and spatial sequence of pulses or natural electromagnetic field of the Earth, which excite complex electrodynamical processes in it and its contacts with surrounding rocks and cause the emergence of a secondary electromagnetic field.
Emission of a sounding pulse and registering of its response signal are carried out by inductors arranged in the same point. Subject to geological, engineering or other objectives, the technology can be used to measure and analyze various components of the response signal.
The HPES technology is focused on recording of electromagnetic response in the frequency range of a “high-frequency” window or at an early and very early stage of magnetic dipole field formation [Gabiyar, Dekok, Waite, 1972; Nekut, Slice, 1989].
HPES technology is applied to examine both temporal characteristics of the earth’s electromagnetic field excited by short pulses and the vertical component of its natural magnetic field. A receiver records the intensity of induced currents in a sensor at 0.1 microsecond intervals and with amplitudes from 1 microvolts to 3 volts. At each point of measurement, field formation curves are recorded in forward and reverse directions to represent graphically dependence of field amplitudes on the wave arrival time.
All data are recorded by devices designed, manufactured and tested by the company itself. Specially designed cylindrical inductive small-size sensors act both as emitters and receivers.
HPES method of analyzing the nature of electromagnetic anomalies can be used for identification of not only shapes, sizes or positioning of targets, butalso fillings of different positive structures (oil, gas, or water).
The method can be applied in inaccessible locations – forests, water reservoirs, offshore, marshlands, steep slopes, mountainous areas, etc.
It can be used for surveying by foot or car, by airplane, on board river or sea vessels.
The work is carried out without any harmful environmental impact, i.e. HPES method is absolutely safe for the environment.
Measurement data and relevant software processing help to identify geoelectric differences of rocks and specific depths of heterogeneous reservoirs.
Conditions and velocity of an induced electromagnetic field propagation in the lithosphere have been determined by comparing results of interpretation of stratigraphic pulse soundings of bore holes with results of their geophysical survey.
HPES technology is a set of hardware and software PROFIL for an advanced analysis of electromagnetic signals. The system consists of a single board computer, a colour LCD display, a high-speed ADC L-Card E20-10 module, a control circuit, an electromagnetic pulse generator, a differential amplifier, a sensor, and a GPS unit.
Assessment of oil and gas prospects in surveyed targets before drilling is an essential element in present-day explorations. Two relevant issues – informativeness of methods and rationality of data aggregation techniques – are usually discussed before selecting and substantiating a set of methods for achieving the objective. Anyhow, the issue of rationality is faced with a challenge of minimizing costs and time of operations, i.e. the challenge of narrowing the set of methods, yet, on the contrary, the issue of informativeness is faced with a challenge of its expansion to gain maximum possible features, based on the interpretation of which one can get the ambiguity in determining the geological nature of the investigated objects and their geometrical characteristics.
A module of the full vector of the magnetic field induction and its components is measured by a new-generation highly sensitive aerial fluxgate magnetometer LEMI-026 (FGM). The magnetometer has high sensitivity (0.01 nT), high-speed performance (250 measurements per second, gradient tolerance (up to 20000 nT/m), low weight (
Aerial magnetometer survey as one of the key methods of the modern geophysical complex is characterized by high mobility, informativeness and relative cheapness.
Thus, aerial magnetometer survey on a scale of 1:25000 allows provides an opportunity to identify and track tectonic faults of different directions and different time of setting – an orthogonal system of faults of submeridional and sub-lateral directions, whereas a diagonal system of faults – the north-west and north-east directions. The diagonal system of tectonic faults intersecting the crystalline basement and the lower part of the sedimentary cover is usually associated with the formation of various kinds of depressions – tectonic steps and flexures, complicated by local uplifts.
The technology makes the projection of millions of laser signals to the ground by means of a special sensor mounted on an airplane or unmanned aerial vehicle. LiDAR data of reflected signals are collected by measuring the time required for the passage of reflected pulses to the sensor. Then, the acquired data are aggregated and converted into an image of a clearly visible landscape – with buildings, trees, roads, creeks and rock outcrops. Besides, by using software packages we are able to generate a pure 3D terrain model of the site without trees, vegetation and man-made structures.
LiDAR systems use the following instrumentation: a laser source and detector; a scanning mechanism and controller; airborne GPS and IMU equipment; a high-accuracy, high-resolution clock for timing laser emissions, reflections, GPS/IMU, and scan-angle measurements; high performance computers; and high capacity data recorders.
LiDAR offers many advantages over traditional photogrammetric methods for collecting elevation data. These include high vertical accuracy, fast data collection and processing, robust data sets with many possible products, and the ability to collect data in a wide range of conditions.
Because of LiDAR’s ability to penetrate vegetation, the data is used to map unknown young faults, more accurately locate previously mapped faults, and determine the potential for geothermal energy in these faulted areas. The data are also used for creating highly detailed maps of other geologic hazards, such as landslides, debris flows, rockfall, and areas prone to flooding.