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Innovative geophysical technologies

TRANSCOMPLEX: Effective Geophysical Technologies

Gains in the efficiency of oil, gas and mineral exploration isvital for future development and growth of the modern economy, and advances in the fields of effective and reliable direct prospecting methods shall play a special role in it.

Direct prospecting should be understood as surveying of geochemical and geophysical anomalies in the ground surface, subsurface sediments, soils, shallow aquifers, atmosphere and hydrosphere which are caused not by traps but by deposits (with respect to ore deposits — by ore-controlling structures). Thus, the effectiveness of direct prospecting is determined by the degree of conformity of such anomalies (DTA) to deposits themselves that vary in very wide ranges.

A higher efficiency of direct mineral prospecting can only be achieved through the study of the nature of various geochemical or geophysical signals from deposits, identification of true DTA, and systemic approach to their interpretation.

TRANSCOMPLEX’s technological chain is based precisely on this research methodology.

Guaranteeing First-order Accuracy of Work
Our experts organize workshops on TRANSCOMPLEX’s innovative technologies
IGT®HPES®MAGNETOMETRICSLIDAR
IGT: NMR technology of remote detection and surveys of deposits

IGT® is a geophysical method classified as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-based technology. The technology is based on such fundamental physical phenomena as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Kirlian effect, informational, and radio engineering properties of terahertz waves (1012–1015 Hz).

General Idea of the Technology

Preliminary the spectrum of the searched mineral is recorded on the special test plates

Space images

Test plates are used as a resonator in radioactive and chemical processing of analogue satellite images of an area captured in the infrared range. The result is a direct visualization of ground boundaries of basins and deposits.

– Diagnostics of large areas – 1-2 months
– Exploration and survey of deposits – 2 months

Onsite expedition

Point-by-point resonant profiling of the area: clarification of deposit boundaries, obtaining longitudinal and cross sections. Selection of optimum drilling points, refined calculation of expected deposit reserves. Test plates are used for spectral modulation of transmitter radiation.

– Expedition to the site – 2 months

Diagnosis of areas and blocs is performed on the area up to 10,000 sq. Km and more

Tasks to be solved
  • Rapid identification of deposits and basins of hydrocarbons on large areas, aquifers and other minerals upon request.
  • Determination of ground boundaries of deposits, estimation of the number of horizons and their possible depths.
Parameters Value
Detection Area any area of land or shelf
Minimum and maximum investigated area no practical limit
Sensing Depth Onshore and on Shelf 0–5 km
Detectable minerals water resources, oil, gas, various minerals and metals in ore deposits
Method Sensitivity Two grams of substances per ton of ore body
Success rate of deposit detection not less than 98 % for water resources and hydrocarbons, not less than 90 % for all other mineral types.

The technology makes it possible to carry out remote exploration and survey of various mineral deposits onshore and on sea shelf with better results, on a tight schedule and at significantly lower costs in comparison with other geological and geophysical methods

IGT® and Conventional Methods
Results (for area ~ 1000 sq. km.)
Parameters Traditional methods Innovative Technology
Executable Operations Satellite survey
Geological Exploration
Geophysical Operations
Exploration Drilling
Remote exploration and detection
Operations on site
Success Rate 30% 90%
Duration 2 – 3 years 2 – 3 months
Average Number of Mining Holes 6 (Based on the data of Russian Oil and Gas Institute) 1
IGT® and 3D-Seismography
Parameters 3D-Seismography IT
Construction of 3D models of objects + (anomalies) +
Mineral deposits identified at the regional operation step +
Identification of gas caps in oil horizons +
Determination of oil mobility +
Determination of gas pressure in gas caps +
Determination of gas pressure in gas-bearing horizons +
Capability to operate in any climatic and geological conditions on sites +
Monitoring of Drilling + +
4D-seismics (time monitoring) + +
Parameters 3D-Seismography IT
Accuracy of ground boundaries of deposits Anomaly boundaries Deposit boundaries:
± 50 m
Accuracy of horizon identification Depth of anomalies ~ 80%
Success rate of conducted operations 30–50% ≥ 90%
Duration of operations (area: 1 thousand sq. km. or greater) 2 years or longer 2–3 months
Specific cost of operations $ 30.000 / km2 or higher Lower by several times.
Reduces with expansion of the detection area
Average number of exploratory and production wells until discovery of the deposit 6* 1
Drilling cost saving to discovery of onshore deposit (oil, gas, gas condensate) $ 10–20 million
Cost saving of drilling around the deposit > $ 3 million
High Precision Electropulse Sounding

The technology of high-precision electric pulse sounding (HPES) is based on excitation and registration of the pulse electromagnetic field in the geologic environment by generator and receiver antennas of small sizes. It differs from standard geophysical methods by its simultaneous registering of active and passive fields resulting from direct or indirect exposure of a target (e.g. oil- or gas-bearing formation, ore bodies) to a given temporal and spatial sequence of pulses or natural electromagnetic field of the Earth, which excite complex electrodynamical processes in it and its contacts with surrounding rocks and cause the emergence of a secondary electromagnetic field.

Emission of a sounding pulse and registering of its response signal are carried out by inductors arranged in the same point. Subject to geological, engineering or other objectives, the technology can be used to measure and analyze various components of the response signal.

HPES technology’s efficiency is over 90%

The HPES technology is focused on recording of electromagnetic response in the frequency range of a “high-frequency” window or at an early and very early stage of magnetic dipole field formation [Gabiyar, Dekok, Waite, 1972; Nekut, Slice, 1989].

HPES technology is applied to examine both temporal characteristics of the earth’s electromagnetic field excited by short pulses and the vertical component of its natural magnetic field. A receiver records the intensity of induced currents in a sensor at 0.1 microsecond intervals and with amplitudes from 1 microvolts to 3 volts. At each point of measurement, field formation curves are recorded in forward and reverse directions to represent graphically dependence of field amplitudes on the wave arrival time.

All data are recorded by devices designed, manufactured and tested by the company itself. Specially designed cylindrical inductive small-size sensors act both as emitters and receivers.     

Advantages of the Method
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HPES method of analyzing the nature of electromagnetic anomalies can be used for identification of not only shapes, sizes or positioning of targets, butalso fillings of different positive structures (oil, gas, or water).

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The method can be applied in inaccessible locations – forests, water reservoirs, offshore, marshlands, steep slopes, mountainous areas, etc. 

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It can be used for surveying by foot ocarby airplaneon board river or sea vessels.

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The work is carried out without any harmful environmental impact, i.e. HPES method is absolutely safe for the environment.

Measurement data and relevant software processing help to identify geoelectric differences of rocks and specific depths of heterogeneous reservoirs.

Conditions and velocity of an induced electromagnetic field propagation in the lithosphere have been determined by comparing results of interpretation of stratigraphic pulse soundings of bore holes with results of their geophysical survey.

HPES technology is a set of hardware and software PROFIL for an advanced analysis of electromagnetic signals. The system consists of a single board computer, a colour LCD display, a high-speed ADC L-Card E20-10 module, a control circuit, an electromagnetic pulse generator, a differential amplifier, a sensor, and a GPS unit. 

A Flowchart of Earth’s Electrical Pulse Sounding Device

The system can acquire, store and process data. Data entered into the computer are stored on a flash drive and can be used in subsequent analyzing.

The system may be added with a standard display and a printer for better visualizing and recording of slice images.

The equipment can accumulate data in series of measurements in automatic and start-stop modes.

  • High accuracy of measurements in any weather conditions;
  • Fully automated process of measurements and processing;
  • Interpretation of survey results by visual selection of color images of anomalous objects from electromagnetic vertical and area slices;
  • High accuracy of identifying anomaly depth positioning;
  • Geometric definition of anomaly shapes.
Magnetometrics
Airborne Geophysical Operations: Methods and Equipment

Assessment of oil and gas prospects in surveyed targets before drilling is an essential element in present-day explorations. Two relevant  issues – informativeness of methods and rationality of data aggregation techniques – are usually discussed before selecting and substantiating a set of methods for achieving the objective. Anyhow, the issue of rationality is faced with a challenge of minimizing costs and time of operations, i.e. the challenge of narrowing the set of methods, yet, on the contrary, the issue of informativeness is faced with a challenge of its expansion to gain maximum possible features, based on the interpretation of which one can get the ambiguity in determining the geological nature of the investigated objects and their geometrical characteristics.

Magnetometric Measurement

A module of the full vector of the magnetic field induction and its components is measured by a new-generation highly sensitive aerial fluxgate magnetometer LEMI-026 (FGM). The magnetometer has high sensitivity (0.01 nT), high-speed performance (250 measurements per second, gradient tolerance (up to 20000 nT/m), low weight (

Earth’s Magnetic Field Components

Aerial magnetometer survey as one of the key methods of the modern geophysical complex is characterized by high mobility, informativeness and relative cheapness.

Thus, aerial magnetometer survey on a scale of 1:25000 allows provides an opportunity to identify and track tectonic faults of different directions and different time of setting – an orthogonal system of faults of submeridional and sub-lateral directions, whereas a diagonal system of faults – the north-west and north-east directions. The diagonal system of tectonic faults intersecting the crystalline basement and the lower part of the sedimentary cover is usually associated with the formation of various kinds of depressions – tectonic steps and flexures, complicated by local uplifts.

LIDAR

The technology makes the projection of millions of laser signals to the ground by means of a special sensor mounted on an airplane or unmanned aerial vehicle. LiDAR data of reflected signals are collected by measuring the time required for the passage of reflected pulses to the sensor. Then, the acquired data are aggregated and converted into an image of a clearly visible landscape – with buildings, trees, roads, creeks and rock outcrops. Besides, by using software packages we are able to generate a pure 3D terrain model of the site without trees, vegetation and man-made structures.

How does it work?

LiDAR systems use the following instrumentation: a laser source and detector; a scanning mechanism and controller; airborne GPS and IMU equipment; a high-accuracy, high-resolution clock for timing laser emissions, reflections, GPS/IMU, and scan-angle measurements; high performance computers; and high capacity data recorders.

  • A pulse of laser light is emitted and the precise time is recorded
  • The reflection of that pulse from the surface is detected and the precise time is recorded
  • Using the constant speed of light, the time difference between the emission and the reflection can be converted into a slant range distance (line-of-sight distance)
  • With the very accurate position and orientation of the sensor provided by the airborne GPS and inertial measurement unit (IMU) data, the XYZ coordinate of the reflective surface can be calculated
How is the data used?

LiDAR offers many advantages over traditional photogrammetric methods for collecting elevation data. These include high vertical accuracy, fast data collection and processing, robust data sets with many possible products, and the ability to collect data in a wide range of conditions.

Because of LiDAR’s ability to penetrate vegetation, the data is used to map unknown young faults, more accurately locate previously mapped faults, and determine the potential for geothermal energy in these faulted areas. The data are also used for creating highly detailed maps of other geologic hazards, such as landslides, debris flows, rockfall, and areas prone to flooding.

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